Subway differentiation

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Subway differentiation

Early years[ edit ] The first monorail prototype was made in Russia in by Ivan Elmanov. Attempts at creating monorail alternatives to conventional railways have been made since the early part of the 19th century.

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It was intended for military use, but was also seen to have civilian use as a "cheap railway. A surviving suspended version is the oldest still in service system: Also in the early s, Gyro monorails with cars gyroscopically balanced on top of a single rail were tested, but never developed beyond the prototype stage.

The Ewing Systemused in the Patiala State Monorail Trainways in PunjabIndiarelies on a hybrid model with a load-bearing single rail and an external wheel for balance.

It uses a load-bearing single rail and two lower, external rails for balance, the three carried on triangular supports. Possibly the first monorail locomotive was a steam locomotive.

A highspeed monorail using the Lartigue system was proposed in between Liverpool and Manchester. The first half of the 20th century saw many further proposed designs that either never left the drawing board or remained short-lived prototypes.

One of the first monorails planned in the United States was in New York City in the early s, scrubbed for an elevated train system. Inthe first monorail to operate in the US began test operations in Houston, Texas.

Subway differentiation

Monorails were promoted as futuristic technology with exhibition installations and amusement park purchases, as seen by the legacy systems in use today. However, monorails gained little foothold compared to Subway differentiation transport systems.

Niche private enterprise uses for monorails emerged, with the emergence of air travel and shopping mallswith shuttle-type systems being Subway differentiation. Perceptions of monorail as public transport[ edit ] The Las Vegas Monorail pulling into the Las Vegas Convention Center Station From tothe monorail concept may have suffered, as with all public transport systems, from competition with the automobile.

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Monorails in particular may have suffered from the reluctance of public transit authorities to invest in the perceived high cost of un-proven technology when faced with cheaper mature alternatives.

This high-cost perception was challenged most notably in when the ALWEG consortium proposed to finance the construction of a major system in Los Angeles in return for the right of operation.

Several monorails[ example needed ] initially conceived as transport systems survive on revenues generated from tourismbenefiting from the unique views offered from the largely elevated installations. Recent history[ edit ] Monorail in the Europa-Park in Rust, Germany From the s, most monorail mass transit systems are in Japanwith a few exceptions.

Monorail configurations have also been adopted by maglev trains. Since the s, with the rise of traffic congestion and urbanization, there has been a resurgence of interest in the technology. Many cities today are seeing monorails as a possible mass transit solution.

This is because Chongqing is criss-crossed by numerous hills, mountains and rivers, therefore tunneling is not feasible except in some cases for example, lines 1 and 6 due to the extreme depth involved.

Today it is the largest and busiest monorail system in the world. There are a number of competing designs divided into two broad classes, straddle-beam and suspended monorails. The most common type is the straddle-beam, in which the train straddles a steel or reinforced concrete beam 2 to 3 feet 0.

A rubber - tired carriage contacts the beam on the top and both sides for traction and to stabilize the vehicle. There is also a historical type of suspension monorail developed by German inventors Nicolaus Otto and Eugen Langen in the s.

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It was built in the twin cities of Barmen and Elberfeld in Wupper Valley, Germany, opened inand is still in operation.

Power[ edit ] Almost all modern monorails are powered by electric motors fed by dual third railscontact wires or electrified channels attached to or enclosed in their guidance beams, but diesel-powered monorail systems also exist.

Subway differentiation

Magnetic levitation[ edit ] Transrapid maglev on monorail track Magnetic levitation train maglev systems by the German Transrapid were built as straddle-type monorails, as they are highly stable and allow rapid deceleration from great speed.

At speed, maglev trains hover over the track and are not in physical contact with it. However, the guideway is so wide that it can be argued it is not legitimate to call it a monorail. Switching[ edit ] Switches at storage facility of Osaka Monorail Some early monorails notably the suspended monorail at WuppertalGermanywhich dates from and is still in operation have a design that makes it difficult to switch from one line to another.

Some other monorails avoid switching as much as possible by operating in a continuous loop or between two fixed stations, as in the Seattle Center Monorail.

With suspended monorails, switching may be accomplished by moving flanges inside the beamway to shift trains to one line or another. The high capacity Tokyo Monorail Straddle-beam monorails require that the beam moves for switching, which was an almost prohibitively ponderous procedure.Compared to the subway, though, freeways are still pretty messy, and that complexity raises new design challenges for a diagrammatic representation.

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