From the History Commons: Osama bin Laden begins providing financial, organizational, and engineering aid for the mujaheddin in Afghanistan, with the advice and support of the Saudi royal family. The executed were buried in mass graves.
When Trump emerged victorious, he did so on a platform that promised to rethink virtually every aspect of American foreign policy, from free trade agreements to environmental treaties.
Richard Nixon campaigning via Wikimedia Commons.
On September 8,Richard Nixon, then Republican candidate for president, issued a statement calling on the United States to take a central role in intervening in the Nigerian Civil War and the growing humanitarian catastrophe that was unfolding in secessionist Biafra.
Though Biafra enjoyed several early successes, the war quickly turned into a protracted blockade against the Igbo heartland, with thousands of civilians dying every day from starvation and disease in the beleaguered enclave that Biafra had become.
Children receive a food ration in Nigeria in via Wikipedia Commons. To counter the military losses, the Biafran leadership embarked on a global public diplomacy drive spearheaded by MarkPressa Swiss public relations firm owned by the American William Bernhard, calling the blockade and ensuing starvation genocide.
The Tet offensive in February created a seismic shift in American support for the war in Vietnam, turning the majority of the population against it for the first time. These efforts, however, had little effect on government policies, because the Nigerians and their allies in the Organization of African Unity OAUeager to prevent a repeat of the Katanga Crisis in Congoblocked most deliberations on the war in the United Nations, insisting that the matter was an internal African one.
Failing that, Ojukwu hoped for internationally recognized relief corridors that would be protected from the Nigerian military. However, any large scale international intervention would require either a ceasefire or a demilitarized zone. For the Nigerians, led by General Yakubu Gowonany agreement for relief was preconditioned on Biafra renouncing secession and the ending of the war.
In fact, despite frenetic efforts at two hastily convened OAU peace conferences in May and Augustthe sides could not agree on either an end to the war or on any agreement to address the humanitarian concerns. For Ojukwu and Biafra, Nixon the candidate was a friend and they hoped that President Nixon would continue to be one.
Biafran leader Chukwuemeka Ojukwu via Logbaby. Though Nixon was personally sympathetic to Biafra, once he became president he could do very little to change the course of the conflict or to influence humanitarian efforts beyond what Johnson had done before him.
In fact, like Johnson, Nixon attempted to assist in convening another round of peace talks, but, according to Nigerian historian George Obiozor, during a visit to London in FebruaryNixon sacrificed his commitment to Biafra in order to secure British support for America in Vietnam.
Nixon continued to personally support Biafra, despite his inability to translate it into policy. Kirk-Greene, Crisis and Conflict in Nigeria: A Documentary Sourcebook An American Dilemma in Africa, You may also like:An official in the Nixon, Ford, Reagan, and both Bush administrations, Peter W.
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The demands of America’s Vietnam-era foreign policy forced Nixon to abandon his personal sympathy for Biafra. Many in the United States and in Nigeria and Biafra saw candidate Nixon’s statement as a call for active intervention in the war, which by the end of had turned increasingly in Nigeria’s favor.